Process Heat

Process heat is the energy used as heat mainly by the industrial and commercial sectors for industrial processes, manufacturing, and warming spaces. This is often in the form of steam, hot water or hot gases. Around half of New Zealand’s process heat demand is met by burning coal or natural gas.

In 2016, supplying process heat accounted for around 8.3 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) equivalent. As a result, process heat made up 28% of all energy-related GHG emissions and is the second largest source of energy-related emissions behind transport. The process heat energy demand was 199PJ or around 35% of total energy used in New Zealand in 2016. Around half of the process heat demand (100PJ) was met by burning coal or natural gas.

The Zero Carbon initiative and Climate Change mitigation requires the phasing out of fossil fuel for Process Heat.

The government is encouraging transition to electricity as a process heat energy source.

As this coincides with the electrification of transport there is absolutely no chance of there being enough electricity generation without massive infrastructure expenditure.


  • 100PJ of fossil fuel is used for process heat. (Dairy Factories use about 30PJ)
  • 230PJ of fossil fuel is used for transport


  • Solar power 0.7PJ
  • Wind power 7PJ
  • Hydro power 95PJ
  • Geothermal 188PJ


How are we going to find another 330PJ of renewable energy for Process Heat and Transport?

Using current in forest harvest waste Biocoal can provide over 100PJ

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